Virtual tour, experience, virtual reality, augmented reality


The aim of this study is to examine the past view experiences of consumers by participating in virtual tours and to reveal the differences and similarities in their attitudes. In the study, content analysis was carried out by using secondary data used in qualitative research methods. The data were obtained by examining the Past View experience comments of tourists from the Seville and Barcelona regions on the TripAdvisor site. The MAXQDA 2020 program was used in the analysis of the data. According to the results of the study, when the Seville and Barcelona code distributions are examined, it is seen that the common codes are experience and innovative ideas for both regions. With the past view experience, it has been concluded that in both destinations, it is possible to travel to the past by showing how the people of that period lived, their traditions or their clothes. In addition, TripAdvisor comments of tourists who have past view experience through virtual tours are thought to be guiding for potential visitors.


Aksoy, G. ve Baş, M. (2020). Dijital Turizm Kapsamında Şehir Tanıtımında Kullanılan Bir Araç Olarak Sanal Tur. Türk Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4(3), 2542–2564. doi:10.26677/TR1010.2020.

An, S., Choi, Y., & Lee, C. K. (2021). Virtual travel experience and destination marketing: effects of sense and information quality on flow and visit intention. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 19, 100492.

Azuma, R. (1993). Tracking requirements for augmented reality. Communications of the ACM, 36(7), 50–51. doi:10.1145/159544.159581

Azuma, R. T. (1997). A Survey of Augmented Reality. Teleoperatorsand Virtual Environments, 6(4), 355–385. doi:10.1162/pres.1997.6.4.355

Bellalouna, F. (2021). The Augmented Reality Technology as Enabler for the Digitization of Industrial Business Processes: Case Studies. Procedia CIRP, 98, 400–405. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2021.01.124

Brayton, J. (2003). The Meaning and Experience of Virtual Reality (Ph.D. Dissertation). Dept of Sociology, University of New Brunswick.

Burdea, G. C., & Coiffet, P. (2003). Virtual Reality Technology (2nd ed.). Wiley-Interscience. doi:10.1162/105474603322955950

Burigat, S., & Chittaro, L. (2016). Passive and active navigation of virtual environments vs. traditional printed evacuation maps: A comparative evaluation in the aviation domain. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 87, 92–105.

Chen, C., Shih, B. and Yu, S. (2012). Disaster Prevention and Reduction for Exploring Teachers’ Technology Acceptance Using A Virtual Reality System and Partial Least Squares Techniques, Natural Hazards, 62: 1217–1231.

Cho, Y. H., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2000). A conceptual framework for evaluating effects of a virtual tour. In D. R. Fesenmaier, S. Klein, & D. Buhalis (Eds.), Information and communication technologies in tourism 2000 (pp. 314–323). Vienna: Springer.

Cho, Y. H., Wang, Y., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2002). Searching for experiences: The web- based virtual tour in tourism marketing. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 12 (4), 1– 17.

Cianciarulo, D. (2015). From local Traditions to ‘Augmented Reality’. The MUVIG Museum of Viggiano (Italy). Social and Behavioral Sciences 188. 138 – 143.

Cirulis, A., De Paolis, L. T., & Tutberidze, M. (2015). Virtualization of digitalized cultural heritage and use case scenario modeling for sustainability promotion of national identity. Procedia Computer Science, 77, 199–206. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2015.12.384

Cohen, L., Manion, L. ve Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Craig, A. B., Sherman, W. R., & Will, J. D. (2009). Developing virtual reality applications foundations of effective design. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Derman, E. (2012). " 360 Derece Panoramik Sanal Tur Uygulaması (Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Örneği)", Yayınlanmış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Kütahya.

Journal of Recreation and Tourism Research /JRTR 2022, 9(1), 33-46


Gomez, D., Burdea, G., & Langrana, N. (1995). Integration of the Rutgers Master II in a Virtual Reality Simulation. Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, 198-202. 10.1109/VRAIS.1995.512496

Guttentag, D. A. (2010). Virtual reality: Applications and Implications for Tourism. Tourism Management, 31(5), 637–651. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2009.07.003

Han, D. I., tom Dieck, M. C., & Jung, T. (2018). User experience model for augmented reality applications in urban heritage tourism. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 13(1), 46–61.

He, Z., Wu, L., & Li, X. (2018). When art meets tech: The role of augmented reality in enhancing museum experiences and purchase intentions. Tourism Management, 68, 127–139. doi:10.1016/j.tour- man.2018.03.003

Jenny, S. (2017). Enhancing Tourism with Augmented and Virtual Reality [Unpublished doctoral disser- tation]. Degree Programme in Business Information Technology Häme University of Applied Sciences.

Jin, V. (2011). Virtual Reality Technology in the Design of the Space Environment Research. In 2011 International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems Engineering (CASE) (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Johnston, R. S. (2014). History in Your Hand: A Case Study of Digital History and Augmented Reality Using Mound 72 [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Graduate School Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.

Kengne, P.A. (2014). Mobile Augmented Reality Supporting Marketing. Business Information Technology Programme Bachleor Thesis. Lahti University of Applied Sciences.

Kim, M.J. , ve Hall, C.M. (2019). A hedonic motivation model in virtual reality tourism: comparing visitors and non-visitors, Int. J. Inf. Manag. 46 (2019) 236–249.

Koehl, M., Schneider, A., Fritsch, E., Fritsch, F., Rachedi, A., Guillemin, S. (2013). Doc- umentation of historical building via virtual tour: the complex building of baths in Strasbourg, Proceedings of the XXIV International CIPA Symposium on Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Strasbourg, France, pp. 2–6.

Krevelen, D.W.F. ve Poelman, R. (2010). A Survey of Augmented Reality Technologies, Applications and Limitations. The International Journal of Virtual Reality, 9(2): 1-20.

Krippendorff, K. (1980). Content Analysis: An Introduction to is Methodology, Sage, Beverly Hills.

Kysela, J., ve Storkova, P. (2015). Using Augmented Reality as a Medium for Teaching History and tourism. Social and Behavioral Sciences. Volume 174, Pages 926-931.

Lee, J. H., Kim, J.H. and Choi, J.Y. (2018). The Adoption of Virtual Reality Devices: The Technology Acceptance Model Integrating Enjoyment, Social İnteraction and Strength of The Social Ties, Telematics andInformatics, 39: 37-48.

Leung, X.Y., Lyu, J.Y, Bai, B. (2020). A fad or the future? Examining the effectiveness of virtual reality advertising in the hotel industry, Int. J. Hospit. Manag. 88 (2020).

Li, H., Daugherty, T., Biocca, F. (2001). Characteristics of virtual experience in electronic commerce: a protocol analysis, J. Interact. Market. 15 (2001) 13–30.

Journal of Recreation and Tourism Research /JRTR 2022, 9(1), 33-46


Li, T., & Chen, Y. (2019). Will virtual reality be a double-edged sword? Exploring the moderation effects of the expected enjoyment of a destination on travel intention. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 12, 15–26.

Loureiro, S. M. C., Guerreiro, J., & Ali, F. (2020). 20 years of research on virtual reality and augmented reality in tourism context: A text-mining approach. Tourism Management, 77, 104028.

Manghisi, V. M., Uva, A. E., Fiorentino, M., Gattullo, M., Boccaccio, A., & Monno, G. (2018). Enhancing user engagement through the user centric design of a mid-air gesture-based interface for the navigation of virtual-tours in cultural heritage expositions. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 32, 186-197.

Manuri, F., & Sanna, A. (2016). Survey on Applications of Augmented Reality. ACSIJ

Advances in Computer Science: an International Journal, 5(1), 18–27.

Napolitano, R. K., Scherer, G., & Glisic, B. (2018). Virtual tours and informational modeling for conservation of cultural heritage sites. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 29, 123-129.

Nelson, T. (2016). Impact of Virtual and Augmented Reality on Theme Parks [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Master of Digital Media, Ryerson University.

Pan, L. (2016). The Application of Virtual Reality Technology to Digital Tourism Systems,

International Journal of Simulation: Systems, Science & Technology, 17(18): 2.1-2.5.

Past View Barselona (2022). d12865796-Reviews-Past_View-Barcelona_Catalonia.html (Erişim tarihi: 06.02.2022).

Past View Sevilla (2022). d3832517-Reviews-Past_View_Sevilla-Seville_Province_of_Seville_Andalucia.html (Erişim tarihi: 06.02.2022).

Pastviewexperience (2022). english/#custom (Erişim tarihi: 04.02.2022).

Pastviewexperience Atina (2022). athens/ (Erişim tarihi: 04.02.2022).

Pastviewexperience Barselona (2022). experience-barcelona-2/ (Erişim tarihi: 04.02.2022).

Pastviewexperience Efes (2022). ephesus/ (Erişim tarihi: 04.02.2022).

Pastviewexperience Sevilla (2022). (Erişim tarihi: 04.02.2022).

Rahimizhian, S., Ozturen, A., Ilkan, M. (2020). Emerging realm of 360-degree technology to promote tourism destination, Technol. Soc. 63 (2020) 101411.

Steuer, J. (1992). Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence. Journal of Communication: Autumn 42, 4. ABI/INFORM Global pg. 73.

Stone, P. J., Dunphy, D. C., Marshall S. S. ve Ogilvie, D. M. (1966). The General Inquirer: A Computer Approach to Content Analysis, The M.I.T. Press, Massachusetts.

Van Krevelen, D. W. F., & Poelman, R. (2010). A survey of augmented reality technologies, applications and limitations. The International Journal of Virtual Reality: a Multimedia Publication for Professionals, 9(2), 1–20. doi:10.20870/IJVR.2010.9.2.2767

Journal of Recreation and Tourism Research /JRTR 2022, 9(1), 33-46


Wimmer, D.D. ve Dominick, J.R. (2000). Mass Media Research: An Indroduction. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Wu, X., & Lai, I. K. W. (2021). Identifying the response factors in the formation of a sense of presence and a destination image from a 360-degree virtual tour. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 21, 100640.

Yagol, P. (2018). Improving the User Knowledge and User Experience by using Augmented Reality in a Smart City context [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Degree of Master of Science in Geospatial Technologies.

Yang, T., Lai, I. K. W., Fan, Z. B., & Mo, Q. M. (2021). The impact of a 360 virtual tour on the reduction of psychological stress caused by COVID-19. Technology in Society, 64, 101514.



How to Cite

ÖZDEMİR AKGÜL, S. (2022). VIRTUAL TRAVEL EXPERIENCE: THE CASE OF PAST VIEW SPAIN. Journal of Recreation and Tourism Research, 9(1), 33–46.



Research Paper